DIN Cranes; steel structures; verification and analyses. standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. (German National Standard). DIN (EN – Version ) – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Find the most up-to-date version of DIN at Engineering
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We need your help to maintenance this website. Please help us to share our service with your friends. It would have been inadvisable to revise the content of the standard at the present time, in view of the general approval which hasgreeted its publication, and mainly because of the current discussions on the national basicstandards relating to steel structures DIN 18 ; furthermore, the efforts of ISOITC 96 to achieve an internationally approved ruling with regard to the loads and load combinations which are to be assumed for the verification by calculation of the performance characteristics of cranes, had to be borne in mind.
The principal corrections, including those which have arisen from the processing of the comments received, are described in the Explanatory notes. Contents Page Field of application Price group 16 Sales No. O1 16 Not for Resale Page 2 DIN Part 1 DIN 1 Field of application This standard applies to the steel structures of cranes and crane equipment of any kind, and also to mobile steel structures for continuous conveyors. It does not cover craneways, excavators, ropeways, wagon tipples and mining machinery.
DIN Part 4 Design loads for buildings: DIN Part 3 Fasteners; technical delivery conditions; property classes for carbon steel and alloy steel bolts and screws; conversion of property classes DIN Part 1 Welded carbon and low alloy steel pipes for supply purposes, process plant and tanks; general specifications, survey, recommendations for use DIN Part 2 Welded carbon and low alloy steel pipes for supply purposes, process plant and tanks; pipes for general use commercial quality ; technical delivery conditions Part 3 Welded carbon and low alloy steel pipes for supply purposes, process plant and tanks; pipes subject to special requirements; technical delivery conditions DIN Part 4 Welded carbon and low alloy steel pipes for supply purposes, process plant and tanks; high performance pipes; technical delivery conditions DIN Part 1 Seamlesscarbon steel tubesfor supply purposes, process plant and tanks; survey, technical delivery conditions: Referred to as high strength friction grip bolts in this standard.
Self weight factors p The loads acting on the supporting structure are subdivided into main loads, additional loads and special loads. The main loads comprise: The additional loads comprise: The above loads are grouped into load cases in clause 5. Travelling speed ZIF, in mimin with rail joints or irregularities road without rail joints or with welded and machined rail joints Over 60 up to 4. Trolley travel Ka 4. The softer the springing of the hoisting gear, the larger the elasticity of the supporting structure, the smaller the actual hoisting speed at the commencement of the hoisting of the useful load, the smaller and steadier the acceleration and deceleration during changes in the hoisting motion, the smaller the factor.
Accordingly, the cranes are classified into lifting classes H 1H 2, H 3 and H 4, with different factors p as given in table 2 below. Examples of this are given in subclause Individual self-contained parts of a crane forming integral parts of the complete unit, such as the trolley and the crane bridge or jib, the slewing unit, portal and tower, may be classified into different lifting classes within the limits defined in table 23 for the various types of crane, provided the hoisting conditions are fully known.
Instead of adopting a precisely com4. In the case of rope controlled jibs, these negative inertia force effects are limited by the slackening of the ropes, whereby an upward movement of the jib becomes possible.
The forces which arise from the subsequent falling back of the jib shall be taken into consideration. In lieu of a more accurate calculation, the quasi-static forces acting on the structure and resulting from the assessment of themovement of thecentreof mass of thesystem underthe effect of the driving forces, of the resistances to motion and of the inertia forces, may be increased by afactor of 1,5 in order to take the dynamic effect into account.
In this respect, loads which are not guided shall be deemed to be rigidly attached to the crane;any swinging of the loads shall be ignored. The adoption of a factor of 1,5 is furthermore Examplesof calculating the inertiaforcesfrom the frictional contact in the case of bridge cranes: Inertia forces during the start-up and braking of crane trolleys with a central drive mechanism Figure 3.
Provided by IHS under license with DIN No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale based on the condition that the driving forces acting on the crane are practically free from backlash.
Zs is the distance, measured at right angles to the direction of motion, of the resultant of the driving forces from the centre of mass S of the crane bridge, trolley and lifted load; a is the centre-to-centre distance of diin wheels or of the guide roller or groups of guide rollers for the absorption of the lateral forces, see also figure 4.
In cases where there is a considerable amount of play between structural members hereinafter briefly referred to as members which move relatively to one another, for example in the case of the rigid mast and the suspension gear of a stripper crane, a factor larger than 1,5 shall be used.
In this connection, one should proceed from the smallest 150118-1 load total in the case of speed-synchronized driven track wheels, or from the sum of the smallest wheel loads in the case of non-speed-synchronized driven 15108-1 wheels, depending on the type of driving 150181- The driving forces shall always be distributed among the track wheels in accordance with the type of driving mechanism.
The inertia forces during the start-up and braking of cranes shall be entered in the calculation 10518-1 each case with the trolley in the most unfavourable position for the member being analysed see figure 3.
Where lateral forces due to inertia forces act transversely to the runway, they shall be absorbed by the rails through positive and frictional contact in accordance with the systems adopted for the supporting structure and the running gear, and in accordance with the type of guiding means used.
Lateral forces acting in opposite directions arise if a distance Is exists between the centre of the masses to be moved and the resultant of the driving forces. Where these forces are transmitted through the trackwheels, and where there are more than two wheels per runway side, they shall be uniformly distributed between the outer wheels or outer wheel groups as shown in the examples illustrated in figure 4.
As far as the supporting structure is concerned, e. In the case of wide-span bridge cranes and portal cranes with separate driving mechanisms, whose supporting structures are not designed to compensate for resistances to motion, driving forces and inertia forces, but only for a limited elastic forward motion of one side of the running gear ahead of the other side, special devices shall be provided to ensure that the assumptions on which the design calculation is based are not exceeded.
Forces arising from skewing When a crane skews at a skew angle a,a positive contact force S, dependent on the running gear and supporting structure, is generated on the front guiding means or group of guiding means front in the direction of travel ; these guiding means may consist of a wheel flange or of a guide roller, and as a result of force Sa group of forces XI i.
YI i and X2i. The distribution of the force S resulting from the skewing of cranes with flanged track wheels is similar to that described in subclause 4.
For cranes with a total of n dkn of track wheels arranged each on an axis i, and of which m are speed-synchronized, and whose wheel loads R I i on side 1 and R2 i o n side 2are of equal 1501-1 respectively for each side, and assuming the usual tolerances for track wheel diameter, axial parallelism of track wheel bores and position of the runway, with a linearized frictional contact relationship applying equally to longitudinal and transverse slip, dln following applies: Other values of the skew angle a shall be agreed.
Factors A, A, ix, Al ddin A2 ix, A2 iy for the calculation of forces S, XI i, Yi i, X2i,YZiand of the position h of the slip pole are determined in accordance with tables 4 and 5 by the dimensions of the crane according to figure 5, by the position of theoverall centre of mass due to theself weights and to the lifted loads, and by the running gear system dij structure system as defined by the following symbols: XR R is the sum of all wheel loads arising from self weights System Position h of the slip pole and factor A.
Dimensions and forces due to skewing of a crane with four pairs of track wheels representing different system characteristics 4. In the case of cranes operating in hot environments, the assumed values shall correspond to the local conditions, e. A linear expansion coefficient in accordance with table 8 shall be entered in the calculations.
Example of the distribution of forces due to tilting of a crane trolley with positive guidance of the lifted load in the direction of crane travel 4. As regards hand rails, a moving horizontal concentrated load acting outwardly or inwardly shall be assumed, amounting to N to allow for persons carrying loads, N to allow for persons not carrying loads. The above-mentioned concentrated loads need not be taken into account in respect of any member stressed by lifted loads in accordance with subclause 4.
The trolley shall be assumed to be located in the most unfavourable position for this purpose. Unless a more accurate calculation is made, Ki shall be distributed proportionally between both sides of the craneway without considering any inertia force effects or any skidding of the driven track wheels see figure 6.
If there is an operational possibility of the tilted trolley tilting back again to its normal position due to the sudden yielding of the obstacle, then the forces arising from such an occurrence shall be taken into account. Loads suspended from carrying means and freely oscillating loads need not be considered.
DIN (EN – Version ) – Free Download PDF
An appropriate substitute mass shall be entered in the calculation in lieu of that of the rotating parts of the running gear. The buffer forces shall be distributed in accordance with the buffer characteristics and the possible movements of the supporting structure.
In the case of cranes or trolleys with or without useful load, no negative wheel loads may result from 1. Unless a more accurate stress analysis is carried out, the buffer forces shall be multiplied by an oscillation coefficient in accordance with table 6 for the stress analysis, depending on the shape of the area beneath the buffer characteristic. The buffer forces Pu due to cranes or trolleys crashing against stops or colliding with one another shall be limited by buffers or by similar energy absorbing means.
Imposed loads shall be entered in the calculation of the members concerned at the most unfavourable positions, values and directions. P, for lifting classes H 1 and H 2: If the crane is loaded with the small test load, all the permissible motions shall be carried out individually with the load situated in the most unfavourable position; however, due care should be observed during the test.
A new motion shall only be initiated after the oscillations arising from the previous motion have ceased completely.
DIN 15018-1 (EN – Version 11-1984)
If the crane is loaded with the large test load, then the small test load shall first be raised to a short distance from the floor. Thereafter, the remainder of the load making it up to the large test load shall be attached with all due care, so as to avoid any oscillations if possible. Testing with test load Pk or Pg shall be carried out in the absence of wind. In cases whereadditional testsare carried out to determine stresses within the framework of the design loads specified in clauses 4 and 5, the test results may be used as the basis for the calculation, using the same safety factors.
All references to systems, dimensions and cross sections made on drawings shall coincide with those made in the calculations. Deviations are permitted if the safety of all components concerned is increased thereby beyond any doubt.
Alignment of craneway Unless the crane operator has specified anything to the contrary, the calculation shall be made on the assumption Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E. Materials other than the steel grades specified in table 8 may be used on condition that their mechanical properties, their chemical composition and if applicable their weldability are guaranteed by the manufacturer of the material concerned.
The HVRichtlinien are applicable to high strength bolted joints, see clause 2. Elastic deformations, required for the calculation of statically indeterminate structures for example, shall be determined on the basis of cross-sectional values without any deduction for holes. In the case of fillet welds subjected to compressive loading in the direction normal to the weld, such as between web plate and flange plate, no allowance shall be made for contact between the members to be joined.
The individual parts of a member etc. Where in composite members a stress resultant is passed on by a system of welds. Angle cleats shall be connected with the structure either taking 1 3 times thevalue oftheapplicable proportion of the stress resultant for one leg and the given value itself for the other leg, or taking 1,25 times the value for both legs.
Welded-on lug plates shall be connected with the structure taking 1,5 times the value of the applicable proportion of the stress resultant. In the case of cranes which do not require a verification of stability to be carried out, the test loads 1018-1 obtained by multiplying the lifted load P by the following factors: The height h, related to the top edge of the rail, shall be entered as follows for the purpose of analysing the web: Dimensions are given in mm.
Height h for the analysis If the rail rests on an elastic support, the transverse and the longitudinal distribution of the bearing pressure under the rail shall be taken into consideration in their most unfavourable pattern in each case for the calculation of the rail bearing beam and of the rail.
115018-1 such verification need be made for design purposes in respect of subordinate components such as walkways, stairways, platforms, hand rails and cabins. The overall stresses governed by the type of crane, load case and verification shall not exceed the permissible stresses in each case, and the safety factors shall not be less than the values specified.
In the special cases listed in table 9, the permissible stresses in accordance with tables 10 to 12 may be exceeded, and the factors of safety against bulging may be below those specified in DIN Part 1 and Part 2 idn in table Where several special cases occur simultaneously, the total amount of the maximum permissible stresses or the minimum faktors of safetyshall be limited to the greater of the values allowed for one of such special cases, provided however that the percentage allowed for each individual special cases is not exceeded.
As regaras load case HS, the stresses of load case HZ multiplied by a factor of 1,l may be used. Longitudinal stresses shall remain within the permissible stresses in members specified in 115018-1 The permissible tensile stresses in welds for transverse loading 1501-1 only be used if the plates requiredforthetransmission of the tensile forces, which are thereby stressed transversely in their rolling plane, are suitable for this purpose see table 24, test method associated with letter symbol D.
See clause 9 for permissible tensile forces on prestressed bolts. In normal cases, the following fasteners shall be used: If the above rules are followed, the specified bolt or rivet bearing stresses shall also apply for members. If the worst case under the above conditions is not bvident from the correlated stresses U, Uy and t,separate verifica. Verification of the safety against bulging of lates shall also be carried out in accordance with DIN art 1 and Part 2, but in lieu of the factors of safety, vB.
In cases where is less than -1, shallbe entered at a value of